Making the transition to the third era of natural resources managementby Nathan L. This is an ideal paper for probing the psychological anguish that accompanies the pragmatic shift in conservation paradigms forced by rapid climate change.
As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms broadleaf forests are more species-rich than those dominated by gymnosperms conifer, montane, or needleleaf forestsalthough exceptions exist.
Forests sometimes contain many tree species within a small area as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forestsor relatively few species over large areas e. Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities.
Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the root systems and as partially decomposed plant detritus. The woody component of a forest contains ligninwhich is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate.
Components[ edit ] Even, dense old-growth stand of beech trees Fagus sylvatica prepared to be regenerated by their saplings in the understoryin the Brussels part of the Sonian Forest.
A forest consists of many components that can be broadly divided into two categories that are biotic living and abiotic non-living components. The living parts include Temperate deciduous forest and missouri essayshrubsvinesgrasses and other herbaceous non-woody plants, mossesalgaefungiinsectsmammalsbirdsreptilesamphibiansand microorganisms living on the plants and animals and in the soil.
Biogradska forest in Montenegro Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascarfeaturing various Adansonia baobab species, Alluaudia procera Madagascar ocotillo and other vegetation A forest is made up of many layers. Starting from the ground level and moving up, the main layers of all forest types are the forest floor, the understory and the canopy.
The emergent layer exists in tropical rainforests. Each layer has a different set of plants and animals depending upon the availability of sunlight, moisture and food.
Forest floor contains decomposing leaves, animal droppings, and dead trees. Decay on the forest floor forms new soil and provides nutrients to the plants. The forest floor supports ferns, grasses, mushroom and tree seedlings.
Understory is made up of bushes, shrubs, and young trees that are adapted to living in the shades of the canopy. Canopy is formed by the mass of intertwined branches, twigs and leaves of the mature trees. The crowns of the dominant trees receive most of the sunlight. This is the most productive part of the trees where maximum food is produced.
The canopy forms a shady, protective "umbrella" over the rest of the forest. Emergent layer exists in the tropical rain forest and is composed of a few scattered trees that tower over the canopy.
Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity.
One such way is in terms of the biome in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species whether they are evergreen or deciduous.
Another distinction is whether the forests are composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous needle-leaved trees, or mixed. Boreal forests occupy the subarctic zone and are generally evergreen and coniferous. Tropical and subtropical forests include tropical and subtropical moist foreststropical and subtropical dry forestsand tropical and subtropical coniferous forests.
Physiognomy classifies forests based on their overall physical structure or developmental stage e. Forests can also be classified more specifically based on the climate and the dominant tree species present, resulting in numerous different forest types e.
The number of trees in the world, according to a estimate, is 3 trillion, of which 1. The estimate is about eight times higher than previous estimates, and is based on tree densities measured on overplots.
It remains subject to a wide margin of error, not least because the samples are mainly from Europe and North America. Old-growth forest contains mainly natural patterns of biodiversity in established seral patterns, and they contain mainly species native to the region and habitat.
In contrast, secondary forest is regrowing forest following timber harvest and may contain species originally from other regions or habitats. These 26 major types can be reclassified into 6 broader categories: Temperate needleleaf[ edit ] Temperate needleleaf forests mostly occupy the higher latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphereas well as high altitude zones and some warm temperate areas, especially on nutrient-poor or otherwise unfavourable soils.
These forests are composed entirely, or nearly so, of coniferous species Coniferophyta. In the Northern Hemisphere pines Pinusspruces Picealarches Larixfirs AbiesDouglas firs Pseudotsuga and hemlocks Tsugamake up the canopy, but other taxa are also important. In the Southern Hemispheremost coniferous trees members of the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae occur in mixtures with broadleaf species, and are classed as broadleaf and mixed forests.
They are generally characteristic of the warmer temperate latitudes, but extend to cool temperate ones, particularly in the southern hemisphere.
They include such forest types as the mixed deciduous forests of the United States and their counterparts in China and Japan, the broadleaf evergreen rainforests of Japan, Chile and Tasmaniathe sclerophyllous forests of Australia, central Chile, the Mediterranean and California, and the southern beech Nothofagus forests of Chile and New Zealand.
Seasonal tropical forestsperhaps the best description for the colloquial term " jungle ", typically range from the rainforest zone 10 degrees north or south of the equatorto the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Forests located on mountains are also included in this category, divided largely into upper and lower montane formations on the basis of the variation of physiognomy corresponding to changes in altitude.
The seasonality of rainfall is usually reflected in the deciduousness of the forest canopy, with most trees being leafless for several months of the year.
However, under some conditions, e.A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function.
Essay about Temperate Deciduous Forest and Missouri - Warsaw, Missouri holds the record for both the coldest and the hottest temperatures ever recorded in Missouri ("Missouri Facts and Trivia"). The temperate deciduous forest is home to unique ecosystems and plentiful wildlife and vegetation.
Warsaw, Missouri holds the record for both the coldest and the hottest temperatures ever recorded in Missouri ("Missouri Facts and Trivia"). The temperate deciduous forest is home to unique ecosystems and plentiful wildlife and vegetation. The temperate deciduous forest receives an average yearly precipitation of 2 to 5 feet, and the humidity of the forest is 60% to 80%.
Soil- The soil in this climate is very fertile due to falling leaves, twigs, logs, and dead organisms.4/4(1). This Essay Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on iridis-photo-restoration.com Deciduous forests are located in the temperate zone above the tropical forests and below the coniferous forests.
The soil is 4/4(1). Essay about Temperate Deciduous Forest and Missouri - Warsaw, Missouri holds the record for both the coldest and the hottest temperatures ever recorded in Missouri ("Missouri Facts and Trivia"). The temperate deciduous forest is home to unique ecosystems and plentiful wildlife and vegetation.