Mayor's Anti-Gang Office Gangs Gangs form for many different reasons including profit from criminal activity, territorial claims, protection, culture or community history.
See Article History Juvenile justice, system of laws, policies, and procedures intended to regulate the processing and treatment of nonadult offenders for violations of law and to provide legal remedies that protect their interests in situations of conflict or neglect. Punishable offenses that are classified as criminal offenses for adults e.
Children are also subject to specialized laws, procedures, and policies designed to protect their interests when parents or other legal guardians are unavailable, negligent, or involved in custodial disputes.
A controversial method of juvenile punishment has been the use of corporal punishment. Although such physical punishment is prohibited in many Western countries, it is still used in some parts of the United States and in much of the non-Western world.
Historically, an increase in juvenile crime such as the late 20th-century rise in juvenile gun offenses in the United States has been followed by calls for the reinstatement of corporal punishment in those regions where it had been prohibited.
Opponents of corporal punishment, however, argue that it is inhumane and that juvenile corporal punishment risks reinforcing the delinquent behaviour of those who receive it. History and operation The specific mechanisms for administering juvenile justice have varied over time—among societies and even among jurisdictions within countries.
The concept of delinquency, as well as special trials and institutions for confining and controlling youth, was established in the midth century in Great Britain, where courts acquired the authority to intervene as parens patriae Latin: Yet juveniles were tried in the same courts as adults until the Juvenile Court of Law was founded in Chicago in The model was soon adopted in other countries such as Canada and Great BritainFranceRussiaPolandJapanand Germany Great Britain Early common law made no special provision for children Juvenile delinquent gangs committed crimes.
In practice, however, age usually served as a mitigating factor in punishments accorded to children.
In the 19th century the reformatory movement, which established training institutions for young Juvenile delinquent gangs as an alternative to confinement in adult prisons, advanced the concept of treating juvenile offenders differently from adult criminals.
The Children Act in created a special justice system for juvenile offenders—the Juvenile Court renamed Youth Court inintended to handle both criminal and noncriminal cases.
The English youth courts exercise jurisdiction over offenders aged 10 the minimum age of criminal responsibility to In addition to age, youth and adult courts are distinguished by the types of cases they handle, with youth courts hearing a much wider variety of offenses.
Nearly all offenses committed by children are tried in youth courts, though the courts are not bound to deal with extremely serious offenses such as robbery or rape. On such charges, a young person will nearly always be tried as an adult.
In most cases a youth also will be tried as an adult for murder or manslaughter.
If he is charged jointly with an adult crime while being tried in juvenile courthe can be sent to an adult court for trial, though he is normally returned to the youth court for sentencing. Youth courts also deal with children of any age up to 17 in what is called a care proceeding, which is based on the idea that the child is in need of court-ordered care, protection, or control because one of a number of conditions is satisfied.
Reasons for care proceedings can include neglect or assault by parents, but they always stem from the fact that the juvenile has committed an offense. Thus, a juvenile who commits an offense will come before the youth court in one of two ways: In appearing before the youth court, a juvenile charged with a minor offense could be removed from parental custody and required to reside in an institution known as a community homeperhaps for a period of several years and possibly under conditions of security.
Under legislation passed in the late s, a care order mandated by the youth court could effectively transfer parental rights to the local authority. The care order is only one of many sanctions available to the English youth court and is used only in a minority of the cases that come before it.
Another measure, the supervision order, places the juvenile under the general supervision of a social worker but sometimes requires participation in a wide range of organized, constructive activities as intermediate treatment.
Juveniles can also be fined though the court usually orders the parent to pay the fine or be ordered to pay compensation for the offense. In the Criminal Justice Act allowed the newly named Youth Court to handle cases involving year-olds, and in the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act assigned stiffer punishments to juvenile offenders.
It was followed in by the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act, which advanced the use of community service as a form of punishment. Throughout the 19th century, juveniles in the United States who were accused of criminal behaviour were tried in the same courts as adults and subjected to the same punishments.
Reports have indicated that during this period approximately one dozen youths were executed for crimes committed before they reached the age of The reformist philosophy instituted in the juvenile court stressed probation conditional release to parents or guardians and the resolution of family problems presumed to be reflected in delinquent behaviour.
Juvenile detention centres were intended to replace jails as the primary forms of temporary secure confinement during the processing of cases. Moreover, confinement and imprisonment in a juvenile correction centre or reformatory also known by the term training school persisted as a common outcome, especially for disadvantaged youths.
A juvenile in the United States may be tried in criminal court rather than in juvenile court in any of the following circumstances: It is commonly assumed that such transfers result in harsher punishment for juveniles, but research has shown that the likelihood of some form of punishment is greater in the juvenile than in the adult justice system.
Nonetheless, studies of cases that are transferred to criminal court show higher rates of subsequent offense relative to similar cases processed in the juvenile court. A trend toward harsher punishments for juvenile offenders, including the death penaltybegan in the s.
Inhowever, the U.The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention reports that the juvenile violent crime arrest rate in was the lowest in the decade despite an 8% growth in the juvenile population from to (Snyder, ).
P revalence of Youth Crime. The number of young people found guilty by the juvenile courts or formally cautioned by police has fallen in . Robert Deis (aka "SubtropicBob") After retiring from forty years of work in the realm of public policy and politics, I now write three blogs (iridis-photo-restoration.com, iridis-photo-restoration.com and iridis-photo-restoration.com) and co-edit the Men's Adventure Library series of books published by New Texture (iridis-photo-restoration.com).
The purpose of the juvenile justice system, from apprehension forward, is to protect the public and reduce juvenile delinquency and to provide fair and impartial procedures for the initiation, adjudication and disposition of allegations of delinquent conduct. Youth Gangs and Violence. Youth gang violence from the 's to the 's has a curious history.
Miller () contended that the national perspective of gangs during this period was dominated by a New York City media view: "a flowering in the s, death in the s, revival in the early s, and dormancy in the later s.". Robert Deis (aka "SubtropicBob") After retiring from forty years of work in the realm of public policy and politics, I now write three blogs (iridis-photo-restoration.com, iridis-photo-restoration.com and iridis-photo-restoration.com) and co-edit the Men's Adventure Library series of books published by New Texture (iridis-photo-restoration.com).