Background[ edit ] The field of neurotechnology has been around for nearly half a century but has only reached maturity in the last twenty years. The advent of brain imaging revolutionized the field, allowing researchers to directly monitor the brain's activities during experiments. Neurotechnology has made significant impact on society, though its presence is so commonplace that many do not realize its ubiquity.
Background[ edit ] The field of neurotechnology has Eurotechnologies inc essay around for nearly half a century but has only reached maturity in the last twenty years. Neurotechnology has made significant impact on society, though its presence is so commonplace that many do not realize its ubiquity.
From pharmaceutical drugs to brain scanning, neurotechnology affects nearly all industrialized people either directly or indirectly, be it from drugs for depression, sleep, ADDor anti-neurotics to cancer scanning, stroke rehabilitationand much more.
Commonplace technologies already attempt to do this; Eurotechnologies inc essay like BrainAge and programs like Fast ForWord  that aim to improve brain function, are neurotechnologies. Currently, modern science can image nearly all aspects of the brain as well as control a degree of the function of the brain.
It can help control depressionover-activation, sleep deprivation, and many other conditions. The neurotechnology revolution has given rise to the Decade of the Mind initiative, which was started in Imaging[ edit ] Magnetoencephalography is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brainusing very sensitive magnetometers.
Applications of MEG include basic research into perceptual and cognitive brain processes, localizing regions affected by pathology before surgical removal, determining the function of various parts of the brain, and neurofeedback.
This can be applied in a clinical setting to find locations of abnormalities as well as in an experimental setting to simply measure brain activity. This technology is a large improvement to single cell or loci activation by means of exposing the brain and contact stimulation.
Functional MRI allows researchers to draw associative relationships between different loci and regions of the brain and provides a large amount of knowledge in establishing new landmarks and loci in the brain.
It has been used since the s and is another tool used by neuroscientists to track brain structure and activation. Positron emission tomography PET is another imaging technology that aids researchers.
Instead of using magnetic resonance or X-rays, PET scans rely on positron emitting markers that are bound to a biologically relevant marker such as glucose. PET scans are becoming more frequently used by researchers because PET scans are activated due to metabolism whereas MRI is activated on a more physiological basis sugar activation versus oxygen activation.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation[ edit ] Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS is essentially direct magnetic stimulation to the brain. Because electric currents and magnetic fields are intrinsically related, by stimulating the brain with magnetic pulses it is possible to interfere with specific loci in the brain to produce a predictable effect.
The mechanisms underlying tDCS effects are still incompletely understood, but recent advances in neurotechnology allowing for in vivo assessment of brain electric activity during tDCS  promise to advance understanding of these mechanisms.
Research into using tDCS on healthy adults have demonstrated that tDCS can increase cognitive performance on a variety of tasks, depending on the area of the brain being stimulated.
Cranial surface measurements[ edit ] Electroencephalography EEG is a method of measuring brainwave activity non-invasively. A number of electrodes are placed around the head and scalp and electrical signals are measured.
Typically EEGs are used when dealing with sleep, as there are characteristic wave patterns associated with different stages of sleep. EEGs are a different method to understand the electrical signaling in the brain during activation.
Magnetoencephalography MEG is another method of measuring activity in the brain by measuring the magnetic fields that arise from electrical currents in the brain.
Implant technologies[ edit ] Neurodevices are any devices used to monitor or regulate brain activity. The most common neurodevices are deep brain stimulators DBS that are used to give electrical stimulation to areas stricken by inactivity.
The basis of this field is that the brain can be regulated using a number of different factors metabolic, electrical stimulation, physiological and that all these can be modulated by devices implanted in the neural network.
While currently this field is still in the researcher phase, it represents a new type of technological integration in the field of neurotechnology. The brain is a very sensitive organ, so in addition to researching the amazing things that neuromodulation and implanted neural devices can produce, it is important to research ways to create devices that elicit as few negative responses from the body as possible.
This can be done by modifying the material surface chemistry of neural implants. Cell therapy[ edit ] Researchers have begun looking at uses for stem cells in the brain, which recently have been found in a few loci.
A large number of studies[ citation needed ] are being done to determine if this form of therapy could be used in a large scale. Experiments have successfully used stem cells in the brains of children who suffered from injuries in gestation and elderly people with degenerative diseases in order to induce the brain to produce new cells and to make more connections between neurons.
Pharmaceuticals[ edit ] Pharmaceuticals play a vital role in maintaining stable brain chemistry, and are the most commonly used neurotechnology by the general public and medicine. Drugs like sertralinemethylphenidateand zolpidem act as chemical modulators in the brain, and they allow for normal activity in many people whose brains cannot act normally under physiological conditions.
While pharmaceuticals are usually not mentioned and have their own field, the role of pharmaceuticals is perhaps the most far-reaching and commonplace in modern society the focus on this article will largely ignore neuropharmaceuticals, for more information, see neuropsychopharmacology.
Movement of magnetic particles to targeted brain regions for drug delivery is an emerging field of study and causes no detectable circuit damage. How these help study the brain[ edit ] Magnetic resonance imaging is a vital tool in neurological research in showing activation in the brain as well as providing a comprehensive image of the brain being studied.
While MRIs are used clinically for showing brain size, it still has relevance in the study of brains because it can be used to determine extent of injuries or deformation. These can have a significant effect on personality, sense perception, memory, higher order thinking, movement, and spatial understanding.The negotiation process will have four  parts: 1.
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New technologies such as nanotechnology are being researched for selective drug delivery, This section is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings about a topic.
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