It will survey various issues, both historical and contemporary, including those involving Asian-Canadians.
Understanding the limitations of the research Producing management guidelines or recommendations. The Literature Review The literature review is a material part of the research process, taking a significant amount of the time and the energy to be expended on the research degree.
Furthermore the literature review is never completed, as the researcher has to remain abreast of the latest literature right up to the final publication of the dissertation. As already mentioned, in the first instance the researcher should have some idea of the field of study, or the area of his or her interest in which the research is to be carried out.
This will perhaps be related to earlier undergraduate academic interests, or to current working experience, or both.
Defining the field of study in such broad terms would be specific enough at the early stage of the research project.
The next step is to review the literature in this general area in some detail. This means reading as much of the published material on the subject area as possible. Initially the researcher needs to review all possible references available, including textbooks, academic papers, professional magazines and newspapers.
In addition television broadcasts and video recordings are also acceptable sources during this stage of the literature review. Emphasis should be placed on the most recent material. The popular press and even textbooks should be given relatively low emphasis at this stage.
Of course, it is sometimes the case that the topic is so new or novel that the popular press or videos have be used as a primary source of reference material.
In such cases it is important that support for views expressed in these media be sought from experts in the field. The literature review should indicate a suitable problem to research as well as give the researcher some idea of the research methods or approaches that have been traditionally used in this field.
In reviewing the literature it is useful to look for contradictions or paradoxes. These usually suggest that there is an interesting research question which could be addressed for a masters or doctoral degree. It is important to note that in the dissertation the literature should be critically evaluated and not just accepted on face value.
It is this critical evaluation of the thoughts of other academics which usually leads to the formulation of suitable research question. Traditionally researchers used paper reference indexes available in the university or business school library as the way of initiating a literature search.
These references lead researchers to seminal papers in the field of interest and these papers in turn contained references to other important papers. However, increasingly this type of paper-based literature search is being replaced by electronic searchers.
Many libraries now supply their students with access to electronic databases, either over telecommunications networks or on CD-ROM. In addition, there are extensive literature search facilities on the Internet, which is currently available to researchers at a low cost.
By the end of the literature review the researcher should have a vision of what he or she wishes to achieve in his or her research. Choosing the Methodology In the first place the literature review should reveal not only a suitable problem to be researched but also a suitable methodology which has been applied to this type of research question in previous research projects.
This implies that the researcher is familiar with the range of methodologies, research strategies and tactics available, and knows something about their individual strengths and weakness. As a general rule, precedent should be followed, although this may be abandoned if a suitable case can be made for a new methodological approach.
For example case studies may be used to establish a grounded theory Glaser and strauss,a survey may be used to confirm a theoretical conjecture and a longitudinal study may be employed to see if the effect of some action research is sustained.
Formalising a Research Question Research questions usually mature and develop throughout the early part of the research project. Although working experience is a good starting point for establishing the research question, it is the literature review that should reveal problems or areas of incomplete knowledge in the field of interest.
Establishing a research question without appropriate evidence from the literature is a risky approach and should not be undertaken lightly. This usually means developing a theoretical conjecture and deriving from this statement a set of hypotheses or empirical generalisations.
It is important that there should only be a small number of research questions in any one study, in the order of three to five. Thus a suitable tactic for the collection of evidence is required and the researcher may choose from those listed in Chapter 3.
In general, business and management researchers at the masters and doctoral level ask questions related to how and why. To answer these types of questions it is necessary to use evidence collection techniques that focus on these sorts of questions.
These tend to be phenomenological approaches that are generally of more value in the academic environment than those concerned with questions of how much or when. On the other hand, some research questions such as those involving the financial and international currency markets, do actually lend themselves to qualitative evidence as opposed to the more quantitative evidence.
Analysis of Evidence Iterpretative analysis which is employed by the phenomenologist relies on an entirely different skill set which is at least as demanding as the mathematical skills required for quantitative analysis. This skill set consists of the ability to conceptualise on the basis of the evidence available and the patterns emerging from it.
This type of analysis may be referred to as hermeneutics. Conclusions of the Research Drawing conclusions from the evidence and presenting it is a convincing argument can be the most creative part of a research project.
The conclusions should convince the reader that something of value has been added to the body of knowledge.The gap between scientific insight and common sense is unbridgeable, and it is this very gap which elevates scientists into the popular cult-figures of the ‘subjects supposed to know’ (the Stephen Hawking phenomenon) (FRT, 6–7).
Interpretive sociology differs from positivist sociology in three ways: 1. First, positivist sociology focuses on action—on what people do—because this is what we can observe directly.
Interpretive sociology, focuses on people's understanding of their actions and their surroundings. 2. Ricardo Arias, Philosophy and Religion James A. Mau, Sociology Ken I. Boodhoo, International Relations Florentin Maurrasse, Physical Sciences Judson M.
DeCew, Political Science Ramon G.
Mendoza, Modern Languages. Work and Learning through the Adult Life Course Other Special Topics in Learning and Work Canadian Journal of Sociology.
Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology. Annual Review of Sociology The authors demonstrate the critical engagement of philosophers of education with the wider educational research community and.
Sociology chapter 10 notes: Data Section - Data might not be the whole truth Interpretation - As if numbers can only mean one thing Use of graphs to discover truth - Manipulating timeframes on graphs; using scale to inflate or deflate a trend Positivist Sociology - Study of society based on scientific observation of social behavior Interpretive.
Plain Words about Biblical Images - Growing in Our Faith Through the Scriptures, California - An Interpretive History, Cram Textbook Reviews Six Lectures on Pastoral Theology - With an Appendix on the Influence of Scientific Training on the Reception of Religious Truth ().