Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Benson and John Leyerle, editors. Of the ten essays included here, eight are revised versions of these papers. The common theme, loosely uniting them, is the thesis that, far from declining, pace Huizinga and Kilgour, chivalry only truly flourished in the later Middle Ages.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Gaedhilge literature, Gaeilge literature, Gaelic literature Celtic literature, the body of writings composed in Gaelic and the languages derived from it, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, and in Welsh and its sister languages, Breton and Cornish.
French-language works by Breton authors are covered in French literature. The earliest evidence of Irish Gaelic consists of archaic sepulchral inscriptions in the ogham alphabet based on a system of strokes and notches cut on the edges of stone or wood usually ascribed to the 4th and 5th centuries ad.
Writings in the Roman alphabet date from 8th-century glosses in Old Irish, but 7th- and even 6th-century compositions are preserved in much later manuscripts.
Four distinct periods are recognizable in Irish Gaelic literature. The early literature linguistically Archaic, Old, and Early Middle Irishwas composed by a professional class, the fili singular, filiand by churchmen.
The medieval literature Chivalric literature essays late Middle and Classical Modern Irish was dominated by the lay and hereditary bardic orders.
In the late literature 17th century to the end of the 19th authorship passed into the hands of individuals among the peasants, the class to which most Irish speakers had been reduced, using the dialects into which the language had been broken up. The subsequent revival has continued to the present day.
The arrival of Christianity and the gradual disappearance of paganism led to the abandonment of their specifically priestly functions. Nevertheless, the fili seem to have retained responsibility for the oral transmission of native lore or learning, which was in marked contrast to the new book or manuscript learning of the Christian Church.
Fortunately, the ecclesiastical scholars were not as hostile to the native lore as were their counterparts abroad, and they appear to have been eager to commit it to writing.
The record consisted mainly of history, legendary and factual; laws; genealogies; and poems, but prose was the predominant vehicle. The official work of the fili has been preserved in fragments of annals and treatises.
Verse The earliest verse has been preserved mainly in passages incorporated into later documents, both literary and legal; most have suffered in transmission and are very obscure. One of the earliest poems is a eulogy on St.
This device of alliterative rhythmical prose was used again in the sagas. Probably the oldest actual metre was that in which two half lines were linked by alliteration—a system reminiscent of early Germanic verse. Rhyme was used from the 7th century; the requirement was only that there should be identity of vowel and syllabic length and that consonants should belong to the same phonetic class—a system also found in early Welsh.
The quatrain seven or eight syllables to a line and rhyme between second and fourth lines was derived from Latin hymn metres. Much early verse was of an official nature, but that of the church was hardly more lively than that of the fili, who often affected a deliberately obscure style.Spanish literature, the body of literary works produced in iridis-photo-restoration.com works fall into three major language divisions: Castilian, Catalan, and Galician.
This article provides a brief historical account of each of these three literatures and examines the emergence of major genres..
Although literature in the vernacular was not written until the medieval period, Spain had previously made. The Real History of the Crusades. The crusades are quite possibly the most misunderstood event in European history.
Most of what passes for public knowledge about it . Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Through this analysis, the study demonstrates that chivalric literature established between knights and hawks a multi-layered and twofold identity shift, which contributed to convey the ambiguities of the knightly ethical model.
Course Summary English English Literature has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities. Celtic literature, the body of writings composed in Gaelic and the languages derived from it, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, and in Welsh and its sister languages, Breton and iridis-photo-restoration.com writings in English by Irish, Scottish, and Welsh authors, see English iridis-photo-restoration.com-language works by Breton authors are covered in French literature.