Life, and Death, and Dickinson Visiting Emily: Variorum Edition 3 vols.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Colonial Literature American writing began with the work of English adventurers and colonists in the New World chiefly for the benefit of readers in the mother country. Some of these early works reached the level of literature, as in the robust and perhaps truthful account of his adventures by Captain John Smith and the sober, tendentious journalistic histories of John Winthrop and William Bradford in New England.
From the beginning, however, the literature of New England was also directed to the edification and instruction of the colonists themselves, intended to direct them in the ways of the godly. The first work published in the Puritan colonies was the Bay Psalm Bookand the whole effort of the divines who wrote furiously to set forth their views—among them Roger Williams and Thomas Hooker —was to defend and promote visions of the religious state.
They set forth their visions—in effect the first formulation of the concept of national destiny—in a series of impassioned histories and jeremiads from Edward Johnson 's Wonder-Working Providence to Cotton Mather 's epic Magnalia Christi Americana Even Puritan poetry was offered uniformly to the service of God.
The best of the Puritan poets, Edward Taylorwhose work was not published until two centuries after his death, wrote metaphysical verse worthy of comparison with that of the English metaphysical poet George Herbert. Sermons and tracts poured forth until austere Calvinism found its last utterance in the words of Jonathan Edwards.
In the other colonies writing was usually more mundane and on the whole less notable, though the journal of the Quaker John Woolman is highly esteemed, and some critics maintain that the best writing of the colonial period is found in the witty and urbane observations of William Byrda gentleman planter of Westover, Virginia.
A New Nation and a New Literature The approach of the American Revolution and the achievement of the actual independence of the United States was a time of intellectual activity as well as social and economic change.
The men who were the chief molders of the new state included excellent writers, among them Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. They were well supported by others such as Philip Freneauthe first American lyric poet of distinction and an able journalist; the pamphleteer Thomas Painelater an attacker of conventional religion; and the polemicist Francis Hopkinsonwho was also the first American musical composer.
The variously gifted Benjamin Franklin forwarded American literature not only through his own writing but also by founding and promoting newspapers and periodicals. The infant American theater showed a nationalistic character both in its first comedy, The Contrastby Royall Tylerand in the dramas of William Dunlap.
Recognition in Europe, and especially in England, was coveted by every aspiring American writer and was first achieved by two men from New York: Washington Irvingwho first won attention by presenting American folk stories, and James Fenimore Cooperwho wrote enduring tales of adventure on the frontier and at sea.
By William Cullen Bryant had made himself the leading poet of America with his delicate lyrics extolling nature and his smooth, philosophic poems in the best mode of romanticism.
Even more distinctly a part of the romantic movement were such poets as Joseph Rodman DrakeFitz-Greene Halleckand Henry Wadsworth Longfellowwho won the hearts of Americans with glib, moralizing verse and also commanded international respect.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau stood at the center of transcendentalisma movement that made a deep impression upon their native land and upon Europe. High-mindedness, moral earnestness, the desire to reform society and education, the assertion of a philosophy of the individual as superior to tradition and society—all these were strongly American, and transcendentalists such as Emerson, Thoreau, Margaret Fullerand Bronson Alcott insisted upon such principles.
Men as diverse as James Russell LowellBoston "Brahmin," poet, and critic, and John Greenleaf Whittierthe bucolic poet, joined in support of the abolitionist cause.
Their solemn histories were as distinctly American as the broadly humorous writing that became popular early in the 19th cent.
Far removed from these humorists in spirit and style was Edgar Allan Poewhose skilled and emotional poetry, clearly expressed aesthetic theories, and tales of mystery and horror won for him a more respectful audience in Europe than—originally, at least—in America.
A number of seminal works of American literature were written during the s. These include Nathaniel Hawthorne 's novel The Scarlet Letterdepicting the gloomy atmosphere of early Puritanism; Herman Melville 's Moby-Dickwhich infused into an adventure tale of whaling days profound symbolic significance; and the rolling measures of Walt Whitman 's Leaves of Grass 1st ed.
The crusading spirit against Southern slavery in Harriet Beecher Stowe 's overwhelmingly successful novel Uncle Tom 's Cabin can be compared with the violent anti-Northern diatribes of William Gilmore Simms.
While the Civil War was taking its inexorable course, the case for reunion was set forth by President Abraham Lincoln in that purest and most exact statement of American political ideals, the Gettysburg Address.
Once the war was over, literature gradually regained a national identity amid expanding popularity, as writings of regional origin began to find a mass audience. Wilkins Freemanthe sketches of Louisiana by George W.
Cableeven the romance of the Old South woven by the poetry of Henry Timrod and Sidney Lanier and the fiction of Thomas Nelson Page —all were seized eagerly by the readers of the reunited nation.
The outstanding example of genius overcoming any regionalism in scene can be found in many of the works of Mark Twainmost notably in his Huckleberry Finn Drama after the Civil War and into the 20th cent.
Realismhowever, came to the theater with some of the plays of Bronson HowardJames A.
Herne, and William Vaughn Moody. The Turn of the Century Trends in American Fiction The connection of American literature with writing in England and Europe was again stressed by William Dean Howellswho was not only an able novelist but an instructor in literary realism to other American writers.
Though he himself had leanings toward social reform, Howells did encourage what has come to be called "genteel" writing, long dominant in American fiction.
The mold for this sort of writing was broken by the American turned Englishman, Henry Jameswho wrote of people of the upper classes but with such psychological penetration, subtlety of narrative, and complex technical skill that he is recognized as one of the great masters of fiction. His influence was quickly reflected in the novels of Edith Wharton and others and continued to grow in strength in the 20th cent.
The realism preached by Howells was turned away from bourgeois milieus by a number of American writers, particularly Stephen Crane in his poetry and his fiction—Maggie: These were forerunners of naturalismwhich reached heights in the hands of Theodore Dreiser and Jack Londonthe latter a fiery advocate of social reform as well as a writer of Klondike stories.
Ever since the Civil War, voices of protest and doubt have been heard in American fiction. By the early 20th cent. Henry Adams was musing upon the effects of the dynamo's triumph over man, and Ambrose Bierce literally abandoned a civilization he could not abide.Poems from Nature - Course Description: The Academy of American Poets is the largest membership-based nonprofit organization fostering an appreciation for .
Poetry for Dummies Karlene McGowen Pershing Middle School Some of the poets include Emily Dickinson, Carl Sandburg, Walt Whitman, William Carlos William, Edgar Allen Poe, and Robert Frost.
I like these books because they are fully illustrated and easy to read. In addition to these books, we will. Comparative Essay On Robert Frost'S Poetry Comparative Essay Introduction The purpose of this essay, based on the two articles concerning the mounting of the Dieppe Raid in is to compare and evaluate how each of the articles approaches the subject matter.
Twenty-One Poems for AP Literature and Composition. Matthew Arnold: “Dover Beach” Robert Frost: “Mending Wall” Emily Dickinson: “Safe in their Alabaster Chambers” () The Poem. About this Poem from the Poetry Foundation.
Emily . COMPARATIVE PAPER ON POETRY: WHITMAN AND DICKINSON’S VIEWS OF DEATH REFLECTED ON THEIR POEMS Walt Whitman & Emily Dickinson’s Views of Death Reflected on their Poems Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman are two of the most innovative poets of the American Literature, mainly because of the revolutionary ways in which they both wrote their poems.
An essay is presented on American poetry. It offers a history of American poetry and mentions its chief proponents who were Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost in which it states the technique of Frost .